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EFFECT OF MYRICETIN, QUERCETIN, VITAMIN C AND N-ACETYLCYSTEINE ON THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF CADMIUM CHORIDE IN RAT KIDNEY

NAOVARAT, TARASUB.1, WANLAYA, LAOSUMRIT.2, SAJEEDAH, SA.2, WATCHARAPORN, DEVAKUL NA AYUTTHAYA.3, TEERADECH, SURAMANA.3, THANES, FUANGFOO.4, THONGBAI, JANSEECHA.5

1 Anatomy Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Science, RSU.
2 Pharmacy Program, Faculty of Pharmacy, RSU.
3 Phramacology and Toxicology Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Health Science and the Health Science Research Center, RSU.
4 Division of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, RSU.
5 Pathobiology Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Science, RSU.

        Cadmium (Cd) is a well-known human carcinogen and a potent nephrotoxin. Myricetin, quercetin, vitamin C and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) are effective antioxidants and free radical scavengers. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the potential protective effects of these antioxidants against cadmium-induced renal toxicity. To assess renal toxicity we determined urine volume, creatinine clearance, serum creatinine and histopathological changes. Male Wistar rats received either cadmium chloride(CdCl2) alone in the dose of 70, 140 and 210 mg/kg and pretreatment with quercetin (100 mg/kg), myricetin (10 mg/kg), vitamin C (100 mg/kg) and NAC (100 mg/kg) for 1 hour before they were given CdCl2 at dose of 140 mg/kg by single oral gavage. All rats were killed 24 hours after each treatment. The results demonstrated a significantly increase of serum creatinine , a significantly reduction of urine volume and creatinine clearance induced by CdCl2 at all doses of treatment as compared to control (p <0.001). Furthermore, the cellular necrosis and swelling in proximal convoluted tubule were observed prominently in CdCl2 at dose of 140 and 210 mg/kg. These observations indicated kidney damages induced by CdCl2 occurred in dose-dependent manner. Treatment with myricetin, vitamin C and NAC was inefficient in reducing cadmium-induced kidney damages. In contrast, quercetin proved to be efficient in decreasing serum creatinine, increasing urine volume and creatinine clearance from animals that received the high dose of CdCl2. In addition, the quercetin and vitamin C also reversed the damages of cell swelling and tubular necrosis induced by CdCl2 administration. This study concluded that CdCl2 in all doses of treatment could induce renal dysfunction and morphological changes. Quercetin at dose of 100 mg/kg resulted in partially alleviating the toxic effects of CdCl2, but not myricetin, vitamin C and NAC. The possible mechanisms of quercetin may involve its property in act as a free radical scavenger.

ที่มา :
การประชุมวิชาการสมาคมพิษวิทยาแห่งประเทศไทย ประจำปี 2548 Food & Chemical Safety วันที่ 17-18 พฤศจิกายน 2548 โรงแรมแกรนด์ ทาวเวอร์อินน์ ถนนพระรามหก กรุงเทพฯ