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1 Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand
2 Research Division, National Cancer Institute, Bangkok 10400, Thailand

Background: Amaranthus viridis  and Amaranthus  tricolor are in family Amaranthaceae. A.viridis  is widely grown and consumed in Northeastern and Southern parts of Thailand. It is served as boiled or blanced and consumed together with Thai chili paste or cooked as soup. A.tricolor  is widely consumed in all parts of Thailand and it also served in international cuisine.

Objectives: The clastogenic and anticlastogenic potentials of raw and cooked Amaranthus viridis.(Pak Khom Had) and A.tricolor ( Pak Khom Suan) induced by mitomycin C (MMC), a direct acting carcinogen, and 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA), an indirect acting carcinogen, were determined using in vivo  erythrocyte micronucleus assay.

Methods: Three samples of Amaranthus , one raw, one blanched and the other boiled, were extracted with methanol. Each extract (100 and 200 mg/kg) for each sample was then administered to male mice by intragastric intubation for 2 weeks prior to the administration of MMC intraperitoneally and DMBA intragastrically. The carcinogens were introduced to the mice then blood was collected from all groups at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours and was analyzed for the number of micronucleated peripheral reticulocytes (MNRETs). A control group received the carcinogens only.

Results: The ingestion of 100 and 200 mg/kg vegetables extracts, both raw and cooked (blanched and boiled) A. viridis  and A. tricolor , for 2 weeks had no significant effect on the micronucleus formation in erythrocyte micronucleuse assay. For the anticlastogenicity test, all of them caused a significant reduction in the number of MNRETs induced by MMC and DMBA when compared with the control group. Both A. viridis and A. tricolor extracts had a similar effect on MMC and DMBA induced MNRETs. The extracts of raw vegetable showed the highest anticlastogenic potential against MMC and DMBA. However, the inhibition of MMC induced MNRETs was markedly reduced in the blanched vegetable and less in case of boiled vegetable. In case of DMBA induced MNRETs, the inhibition by blanched and boiled vegetables was not different.

Conclusion: A.viridis  and A.tricolor  had no clastogenicity. Interestingly, however they showed significant anticlastogenic activity against both direct and indirect-acting carcinogens.

Key words: Clastogenicity-Anticlastogenicity-Amaranth-Mitomycin C-
DMBA-Erythrocyte Micronucleus Assay

ที่มา: ABSTRACT นำเสนอที่ การประชุมวิชาการสมาคมพิษวิทยาแห่งประเทศไทย ประจำปี 2547 อาหารกับความปลอดภัย วันศุกร์ที่ 17 ธันวาคม 2547 โรงแรมมิราเคิลแกรนด์ กรุงเทพฯ